Calculation of great distances with Spectral-Lines.
Albert Bünger, Artlenburg
The received light from Galaxy-Objects was investigated by a spectroscope. Thereby lines of emission and absorption become visible. These lines are compared with values getting from the lab, par example lines from hydrogen or helium. For calculation you can use the frequency or the wavelength of spectral lines. Astronomers prefer the wavelength. To get an experience, how the wavelength was stretched, you can draw a visual object. Ill. 1 The baseline of illustration 1 has the distance 2 π = 6.28. If you pull this wave to the right end of the baseline, you can see that the wave covers the baseline. The same matter happens, if the expanding vacuum-space of the cosmos has stretched the wavelength. The wavelength of the light was stretched by the expanding vacuum-space of the cosmos. In this case the vacuum-space is a variable value. The expansion of the vacuum-space is reaching the light-speed in a certain distance from the observer. That is the point of the information-boundary. From that locality no light or other information can reach the observer. Look at Ill. 2. With this boundary you have determined a calculable size within the universe. You divide the light run distance from the local position of the observer up to the information boundary by 2. The remaining distances respectively divide by 2. You can make it like the example in the illustration 1 and 3. With that you have an excellent arithmetic base for the following calculation methods. c = Light-Speed
The expansion factor (z Delta lambda (Δ λ) is the difference between the measured wavelength and the laboratory wavelength (λ For precision calculation you have to convert the relative red schift (z) into the expansion factor (z You cannot observe a flight speed, which is greater than the light speed. All calculation results are within the distance from the locality of the observer up to the locality of the Information Boundary.
The expansion-acceleration of the vacuum-space is defined by the Hubble-Parameter.
Every values within these swing-width were assumed as correct. For this reason the definition "Hubble-Constant" is not correct. The new term "Mean-Value of the Hubble-Parameter" is correct, because his value contain the definition swing-width of variations.
This is the foundation to calculate the distance of a Galaxy. The radial Information-Boundary was calculated: r This result is correct. The radial distance is exactly half the distance to the Information-Boundary and the observed object is fleeting away with 50% of the speed of light. The light-emission needs a certain time to reach the observer. During this time the wavelength was expanded by the expansion of the vacuum-space of the cosmos. This dependence is valid for every wavelength. Therefore you can use this calculation-method for all wavelength and frequencies. f = Frequency of the measured absorption-line of an object f _{o} = Frequency of the measured absorption-line of the Lab
z _{e} = f_{o} / f
1. Distribution of Spiral-Galaxies in the cosmos.
Ill. 2 The illustration 2 shows the flight speed and the distance of the brightest galaxies from the point of observation. Firstly find out by Sandage (1972). The vertical line displays the logarithm of the flight speed of the brightest Galaxies and the horizontal line displays the distance from the observer. The cosmos expands with acceleration. In a far distance from the observer the flight speed of the galaxies reached the light speed. The information boundary is determined by the point of intersection of both lines. The logarithm of the light speed is: log 5.476820703 The following proofs arise from this: - A flight speed which is larger than the light speed cannot be observed. For this reason all observations and calculations refer to the area of the light run distance of the observation location up to the information boundary.
- The cosmic background radiation has to be watched by the observation location only within the area of the light run distance up to the information boundary.
- The information boundary doesn't define the age or the end of the universe.
- A radiated photon cannot spread across the complete universe, but maximum only up to that one of his own radial information boundary.
- The gravitation strength of a star or a galaxy only reaches up to his own radial information boundary. With this proof one of the greatest mistakes is removed in the cosmology and the physics.
- By the expansion of the vacuum room the wavelengths of the light are stretched during the light running time. This yields the frequency loss of the light.
- The distant spiral Galaxies don't move just like our Milky Way with light speed in their local vacuum room. With this proof another mistake of the cosmology is removed with that, that the distant spiral Galaxies assume relativistic speeds.
The most modern method to determine the far galaxies is the use of detectors which can count the quantity of the photons and measure their energy. You can observe the vacuum room of the cosmos only from our location of our planet or the nearby region in the orbit. It seems to be to the observer, that he is in the center of the cosmos. That is an optical delusion. To get a vision from the distribution of the Spiral-Galaxies in the vacuum room of the universe, you can draw a visual model. To get no confusion with traditional values z = (λ / λ Ill. 3 You can recognize the absolute Information-Boundaries (r If you use the expansion-factor z Up to z 2. Cosmic Background-Radiation Astronomers have observed the 2.725 K background-radiation with the COBE-Satellite. This background-radiation is within the distance from local observer to the Information-Boundary too. The intensity of the background-radiation was reduced on dependence of the larger growing wavelength of their frequency-spectrum. Galaxies in foreground cover galaxies in the background. For that reason the background-radiation from all directions in the cosmos is not absolutely even. Measurements of the COBE-Satellite confirm this facts.
Ill. 4 Analogously to the music the frequency doubles herself from octave to octave to the higher notes. The other way the wavelength doubles herself from octave to octave to the lower notes. This is the reason for the introduction of the octaves to the measurement system for large distances. The values for z
Speed of the light: c = 299 792.458 km s
3. Source of Literary and Photo [1] NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope All rights preserved. Copyright © by Albert Bünger, Artlenburg
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